SAP-COPA: Source and Target Fields

Use: You enter the source and target fields for derivation in a derivation step.
Source fields:
You can use the following operating concern fields as source fields:
  • All fixed characteristics
  • All user-defined characteristics
  • All characteristics copied from SAP tables or from the field catalog
  • All characteristics copied from customer hierarchies (CO-PA HIE01 to HIE10)
  • All quantity unit fields (CO-PA *_ME)
Target fields:
You can use the following fields as target fields for derivation:
  • All user-defined characteristics
  • All characteristics copied from SAP tables or from the field catalog
  • All characteristics copied from customer hierarchies (CO-PA HIE01 to HIE10)
  • Only the following fixed characteristics:
  • Customer number (CO-PA KNDNR)
  • Product number (CO-PA ARTNR)
  • Business area (CO-PA GSBER)
  • Profit center (CO-PA PRCTR)
  • Sales organization (CO-PA VKORG)
  • Distribution channel (CO-PA VTWEG)
  • Division (CO-PA SPART)
  • Plant (CO-PA WERKS)
  • All quantity unit fields (CO-PA *_ME)
  • Temporary fields (GLOBAL USERTEMP1 to GLOBAL USERTEMP8)
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Profitability Analysis (CO‑PA)-SAP

Profitability Analysis (CO-PA) enables you to evaluate market segments, which can be classified according to products, customers, orders or any combination of these, or strategic business units, such as sales organizations or business areas, with respect to your company’s profit or contribution margin.

The aim of the system is to provide your sales, marketing, product management and corporate planning departments with information to support internal accounting and decision‑making.

Two forms of Profitability Analysis are supported: costing-based and account-based.

  • Costing-based Profitability Analysis is the form of profitability analysis that groups costs and revenues according to value fields and costing-based valuation approaches, both of which you can define yourself. It guarantees you access at all times to a complete, short-term profitability report.
  • Account-based Profitability Analysis is a form of profitability analysis organized in accounts and using an account-based valuation approach. The distinguishing characteristic of this form is its use of cost and revenue elements. It provides you with a profitability report that is permanently reconciled with financial accounting.

You can also use both of these types of CO‑PA simultaneously.

This graphic is explained in the accompanying text

Integration

Profitability Analysis, alongside Profit Center Accounting (EC-PCA), is one of the application components for profitability accounting.

Features

In the application component CO-PA, you can define your master data,  the basic structures of this form of profitability analysis. This includes both units you want to evaluate (characteristics) and the categories in which you analyze values. In costing‑based CO‑PA, you define “value fields” in which to store your data for analysis. In account‑based CO‑PA, the values are structured by account.

Using the SAP master data (customer, product, customer hierarchy) or CO‑PA derivation rules, the system can derive additional characteristics based on the ones entered manually or transferred from primary transactions. The combination of characteristic values forms a multidimensional profitability segment, for which you can analyze profitability by comparing its costs and revenues.

If you reorganize parts of your company, such as your sales districts or customer hierarchies, you can change the assignments between characteristics for data that has already been posted.

The actual postings represent the most important source of information in CO‑PA. You can transfer both sales orders and billing documents from the Sales and Distribution (SD) application component to CO‑PA in real time. In addition, an interface program is available to let you transfer external data to the SAP system. You can also transfer costs from cost centers, orders and projects, as well as costs and revenues from direct postings (G/L account postings in FI, orders received in MM, and so on) or settle costs from CO to profitability segments.

In costing‑based CO‑PA, you can valuate incoming sales orders or billing documents to automatically determine anticipated sales deductions or costs. You can also revaluate your data periodically to adjust the initial, real-time valuation or add the actual costs of goods manufactured.

In CO‑PA Planning, you can create a sales and profit plan. Whereas both types of Profitability Analysis can receive actual data in parallel, there is no common source of planning data. Consequently, you always plan either in accounts (account‑based CO‑PA) or in value fields (costing‑based CO‑PA). In costing‑based CO‑PA you can use automatic valuation to calculate planned revenues, sales deductions and costs of goods manufactured based on the planned sales quantity.

The manual planning function lets you define planning screens for your organization. With this you can display reference data in planning, calculate formulas, create forecasts, and more. Planning can be performed at any degree of detail. For example, you can plan at a higher level, and have this data distributed top‑down automatically.

In automatic planning, you can copy and revaluate actual or planning data for a large number of profitability segments at once. You can also transfer planned sales quantities from (costing‑based) CO‑PA to Sales and Operations Planning (SOP) for the purpose of creating a production plan there.

The Information System lets you interactively analyze existing data from a profitability standpoint using the functions of the drilldown reporting tool. There you can navigate through a multidimensional “data cube” using a number of different functions (such as drilldown or switching hierarchies). The system displays data in either value fields or accounts, depending on the currently active type of Profitability Analysis and the type to which the report structure is assigned. (Each report structure is assigned to either costing‑based or account‑based CO‑PA.)

You can change the display parameters online directly from the displayed report. You can store report structures with predefined sort orders, number formats and so on, and execute these online or in the background at any time.

COPA Planning -SAP

Planning in COPA
Planning in COPA can be made at various levels. SAP allows to plan:
1- By manually inputting figures for segments. You need to create planning layout in KE14, this can be used then in KEPM (Planning framework).
2- By manually inputting Sales Quantity only, and rest of valuation would be done using valuation strategy as configured in IMG (KE4U) & Revenue would be planned using costing sheets.
First method is quite straightforward; where there is a lot of manipulation of data, as required. However in second method; only quantity is planned; rest of valuation is done automatically.
For second method it is required to configure in different areas in IMG to work, below is detailed working step wise:
Manual & Automatic Planning (Point of Valuation 03 & 04) in COPA
In IMG; assign valuation strategy to point of valuation (Transaction code: KE4U)
 
Input Point of Valuation 03 (manual planning) & 04 (automatic planning) against version, where you want to valuate your planning data.
 
In IMG: Select “Assign costing keys to Material Types” in order to assign point of valuation (03 & 04) & to relevant material type (Transaction Code: KE4J):
 
Input point of valuation 03 & 04 for record type F “Billing Data” against material types relevant for costing (say FERT & HALB) for relevant plan version.

In IMG: Select “Assign value fields” in order to assign Point of Valuation (03 & 04) to cost component structure (Transaction Code: KE4R):

 
 Input Point of Valuation 03 & 04 for all cost components, for which you want to valuate planning data.
 
In IMG: Check “Valuation Simulation” to verify the configuration made in above steps (Transaction Code: KE21S):

Select any posting date; Record Type “F”, point of valuation 03 0r 04 & version for which you are planning your data.

Input Parameters in Selection Screen (e.g Company Code, Product & Plant etc)


Input Sales Quantity with unit of measure & click on valuation icon above

 
You can see the results in level 2 under “After valuation”; that means valuation is done successfully.
 

For automatic valuation, you need to tick “automatic valuation” option in planning framework (tcode KEPM). Whenever you would plan data in this framework; it would be automatically valuated.

 

Maintain COPA Costing Sheets for “Sales Revenue” Planning 

You have two options regarding costing sheets; either you use costing sheet created in SD or you create in COPA.
In order to create Costing Sheet in COPA; Please follow following steps:
In IMG: select condition tables; condition tables are used to identify fields, for which you want to plan data i.e. Sales Revenue or Deductions/Surcharge or other cost segments.
(Transaction Code: KE4A)
 

Enter Code for table between 501 & 999

 

Select fields (Characteristics) by double clicking

 

In IMG: Select Access Sequence for table created above

 

Please be aware that! Creation of Access Sequence is Cross Client Activity.

 

Create Access Sequence and define accesses for same

 

Enter table created above.

 

Here you can see fields selected in table

 

In IMG: Select Condition Types and Costing Sheets to create condition parameters and condition records for costing sheet (pricing procedure)

 
Click on Create button ( ) under condition types menu (on left side) & give condition type & its description (on right side).
Choose Access Sequence created in previous step.

Select Prices in “Definition of Condition Type”

 

Select “Price” with change in Quantity in “Prices” options:

 

Click on “Records for Condition Type” to enter planning data

Enter Planned Data in form

 
Now click on Create Button under Pricing Procedure Menu to create costing sheet

Enter relevant name for Pricing Procedure & Description and input condition type created above in table below

 In IMG: Select “Define and Assign Valuation Strategy” in IMG menu to assign costing sheet to valuation strategy
 

Input Costing Sheet against Application Class “KE”, however if you want to use costing sheet from SD, you will assign same against Application Class “V”.

 
 In IMG: Select “Assing Value Field“.

For COPA costing sheet, you have to assign condition type to value field

 
Input Value Field against Condition Type here (Transaction Code: KE45)
 
After all above settings; simulation can be checked to verify results (Transaction Code: KE21S)


Select any posting date; Record Type “F”, point of valuation 03 0r 04 & version for which you are developing planned data.

 

Input Parameters; i.e. Company Code & Product/Plant

 

Input Quantity with Unit of measure & Click on valuation

 

A new line has been generated in valuation analysis with valuation method “Costing Sheet“, please click on analysis icon to check results

 

For Amount planned for product, you can see revenue calculated:

 

Under Results of Valuation you can see assignment of condition type against value field.

 

You can maintain table fields; for faster/most granulated input (Transaction Code: KE4A)

 

You can enter condition records (say planned price) using transaction code KE41.

 

Please use KE42 to change & KE43 to display planned inputs.